This chapter reviews the research and literature on the inner workings of academic reward systems and is informed by critical theory and standpoint theories. Such theories consider actor’s positions in structures of power (e.g., Harding, 1991). This lens is helpful in framing literature on reward systems because most of the major questions that have been asked in this area focus on the fairness of distribution of rewards. Critical theory and standpoint theories are often employed as a foundational set of assumptions from which to ask if other factors (such as gender or race, time spent on certain work activities) advantaged or disadvantaged faculty in their particular organization, with its own structures of power (O’Meara, Terosky, & Neumann, 2008). The prisoner in the panopticon image also relates to a perceived organization and makes choices to maximize their status within it. This review is also influenced by the study of organizational behavior in higher education and the processes by which different aspects of structure and culture interact to produce specific outcomes (Birnbaum, 1988, 1992; Senge, 1990).