Despite progress in women's overall representation among tenured faculty, the percentage of women full professors, especially in research universities, remains stubbornly low. This chapter examines gender differences among associate professors' sense of agency and work environment factors that likely contribute to differential progress in associate to full advancement among female and male faculty at one institution. Work environment survey data of a large, very high research activity, public institution in the Northeast reveal common challenges embedded within all associate professors' career paths. However, we consider the distinct additional challenges faced by female associates versus male associates. We address five areas where female associates noted greater concern and challenges than their male counterparts at the same rank: workload, work-life balance, resources, networks, and agency in career advancement. After considering the facilitators and consequences of challenges faced by female associate professors from the perspective of "foggy climate," we offer recommendations for associate professor mentoring, career development, and institutional policy and practice.